1921-1923 Warren G. Harding, 29th. President of the United States (R) Confirmed Mason. Initiated: June 28, 1901, Marion Lodge No. 70, Marion, Ohio. Because of some personal antagonism, Brother Harding’s advancement was hindered until 1920, by which time he had been nominated for President. Friends persuaded the opposition to withdraw the objection, and on August 27, 1920, nineteen years after his Initiation, Brother Harding achieved the Sublime Degree of Master Mason, in Marion Lodge.
At his request, Brother Harding took the Oath of Office of President of the United States upon the same Bible as was used by Brother George Washington for the same purpose on April 30, 1789 the Altar Bible of St. John’s Lodge No. 1, New York City. (The New Age Magazine, January 1953, pg. 44) Harding remarked privately to his wife while on a cross country trip ” I have no trouble with my enemies……but my…..friends….keep me walking the floor nights!” President Harding visits Alaska and receives a “long ciphered message” which visibly upsets him, causing him to ask what a president could do when friends betrayed him; he died soon after among conflicting rumors about the cause of his death. He developed pneumonia and died suddenly on August 2, 1923. (Fritz Springmeier, Illuminati Bloodlines) Vice President Calvin Coolidge, 1921-1923. Unknown Mason status.
Warren Harding had an affair with Carrie Phillips Before he became President. It lasted 15 years. She was paid $25,000 plus $2,000 a month palimony. Also Nan Briton. Began before he became President, and lasted until his death in office. They had a daughter, Elizabeth Ann. Nan Briton wrote a best selling book titled The President’s Daughter. Presidents and their reputed Affairs
1921-1930 William H. Taft, S.C.J. Chief Justice. Confirmed Mason. Also 27th president of the United States in 1901-1913. Nominated by Mason President Warren G. Harding.
1922 William Galey Lord + Francis Norton. Skull and Bones. =Son Charles Edwin Lord 2nd.
1922 Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of England, Confirmed Mason, and a Druid. stated to the London Press in 1922: “From the days of Sparticus Weishaupt, Karl Marx, Trotsky, Belacoon, Rosa Luxenburg, and Ema Goldman, this world conspiracy has been steadily growing. This conspiracy played a recognizable role in the tragedy of the French Revolution. It has been the mainspring of every subversive movement during the 19th century. And now at last this band of extraordinary personalities from the underworld of the great cities of Europe and America have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their head and have become the undisputed masters of that enormous empire.”
1922-1938 George Sutherland, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by Mason President Warren G. Harding.
1923-1939 Pierce Butler, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by Mason President Warren G. Harding.
1923-1930 Edward Terry Sanford, Associate Justice. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by Mason President Warren G. Harding.
Note: Mormon apostle Reed Smoot was given permission to run for office by the LDS church. Pres. Harding appointed him to the World War Foreign Debt Commission, and he also served the Illuminati as the chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. The War Finance Corp. just happened due to Smoots arranging it to gave the LDS church a $10 million loan.
1923-1929 Calvin Coolidge, 30th. President of the United States (R) Unknown Mason Status. Vice President Charles G. Dawes, 1925-1929. Unknown Mason status. Coolidge was related to the following Presidents: Harrisons, Jefferson, Jackson, Truman, and Lyndon Johnson. (Everything is Under Control. Conspiracies, Cults, and Cover-Ups by Robert Anton Wilson pg 39-40)
1924 John W. Davies, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (D) Unknown Mason status.
1924 Robert M. LaFollette, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (Pr) Unknown Mason status.
1925-1941 Harlin Fiske Stone, Associate Justice. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by President Calvin Coolidge.
1926 Oswald Bates Lord + Mary Pillsbury. Skull and Bones. (Of Pillsbury Flour family)=Son Winston Lord
1928 Alfred E. Smith, loosing candidate for Presidency (D) Unknown Mason status.
1929-1933 Herbert Hoover, 31st. President of the United States, (R). Unknown Mason status. Vice President Charles Curtis, 1929-1933. Unknown Mason status. This President refused to implement the Emergency Banking and Relief Act of 1933. Charles Duke on 1933 Hoover was a member of the all-male ultra-exclusive Bohemian Club to which every Republican President since Herbert Hoover has belonged.
1930-1941 Charles Evans Hughes, Chief Justice. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by President Herbert Hoover.
1930-1945 Owen Josephus Roberts, Associate Justice. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by President Herbert Hoover.
1932-1938 Benjamin Nathan Cardozo, Associate Justice. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by President Herbert Hoover.
1932 Herbert Hoover, loosing candidate for Presidency (R) Unknown Mason status.
1933-1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd. President of the United States (D) Confirmed Mason and Illuminati Puppet. (New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies, William T. Still, pg. 21) Roosevelt was Initiated: October 11, 1911, Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City. Brother Roosevelt participated in the Raising of his son Elliott (1910-1990) on February 17, 1933, in Architect’s Lodge No. 519, also in New York City. He was present, but did not participate in the Degrees when two other sons, James (1907-1991) and Franklin D., Jr. (1914-1988) became Members of their brother Elliott’s Lodge, on November 7, 1935. Brother and President Roosevelt was made the first Honorary Grand Master of the Order of DeMolay on April 13, 1934 at the White House. Governor of New York, 1929-1933. Nelson Rockefeller was the power behind this president. Was also a member of the Anti-American organization known as the Council of Foreign Relations (CFR). Died in office April 12, 1945. Roosevelt is responsible for passing the Emergency Banking and Relief Act of 1933. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt so warmly embraced this unconstitutional law. FDR orders use of Great Seal of the U.S. (Satanic Seeing Eye) on reverse side of the dollar bill. There are 13 families or groups heading up the World Government plan. These families are portrayed as the 13 layers of blocks found on the strange seal on the reverse side of the U.S. $1 bill. (Fritz Springmeier, Illuminati Bloodlines) FDR once said: “In politics, nothing happens by accident. If it happens, you can bet it was planned that way.” FDR stacked the U.S. Supreme Court with judges who would vow to continue his dictatorial powers. Those powers have been assumed by all Presidents since FDR, including the one presently in the White House. Kill Your Television-Charles Duke on 1933 (The Day Our Constitution was stolen ) Vice President John N. Garner 1933-1941. Unknown Mason status. Vice President Henry A. Wallace, 1941-1945. Unknown Mason status. Vice President Harry S. Truman, 1945 Confirmed Mason. Replaced Roosevelt for a short term, then went on to capture the next election. Note: We have a Mason Vice President put in power before the President dies. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, who was blood related to both President Martin Van Buren and to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, is on record. President Roosevelt’s son, James, wrote a book entitled “A Family Matter” in which he details Roosevelt “bold decision” to share the nuclear technology with the Soviet Union. Franklin Roosevelt did indeed know in advance of the attack on Pearl Harbor and allowed it to happen in order to enrage Americans into a war they otherwise would have not supported. Pearl Harbor – Mother of All Conspiracies Franklin Roosevelt was related to the following Presidents: Theodore Roosevelt, Grant, Washington, van Buren, and Taft. (Everything is Under Control. Conspiracies, Cults, and Cover-Ups by Robert Anton Wilson pg 39-40)
Franklin D Roosevelt had an affair with Lucy Mercer (Rutherford). Began before he became President when Lucy Mercer was Eleanor Roosevelt’s Social Secretary. Mrs. Roosevelt found out about it when she came across some love letters. FDR promised to give it up rather than divorce, but he didn’t. She was at Warm Springs with him when he died. Presidents and their reputed Affair
In a letter to an associate dated November 21, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt wrote, “The real truth of the matter is, as you and I know, that a financial element in the large centers has owned the government ever since the days of Andrew Jackson.” The Council on Foreign Relations and the New World Order
February 22, 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt writes a DOUBLE TOP SECRET memo on White House stationary for “The special committee on non-terrestrial science and technology.” Both the title and the content clearly allude to extraterrestrial life, the former using the word “non-terrestrial” and the latter talks about “coming to grips with the reality that our planet is not the only one harboring intelligent life the universe.” http://www.majesticdocuments.com/documents/2000.html
Using stand-ins is a common procedure. For instance, the book *The Strange Death of Franklin D. Roosevelt* by Emmanuel M. Josephson, copyright 1948, said in the chapter titled “Roosevelt’s Odd Ailments and His Strange Death” that both Roosevelt and Churchill were poisoned at the Teheran conference with Stalin. “At Teheran Roosevelt and Churchill met with Stalin to confirm the division of the World between them. During the conference, Roosevelt had been prevailed upon by the Russians to stay at the Russian Embassy because, the Russians said, the American Embassy was not safe.
At the Russian Embassy, it is reported, a special courtesy was extended to the guests. They were assigned a special waiter who served them exclusively. It was later discovered that the waiter was a physician who specialized in the science of poisoning, toxicology. The use of doctors under Russia’s state medical system in disposing of persons whom the powers-that-be wished out of the way, by poisoning them, has been attested to in the Moscow purge trials. Dr. Levine testified that he had been ordered by his superiors to poison Maxim Gorki and had done so.
WHO KILLED FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT?
The World War II Cairo conference between Pres. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek ended on Oct. 26, 1943. That evening I was given orders to fly a group of participants from Cairo to Tehran. Up to that time, I had not been aware that there was going to be a Big Four meeting of the Super-Powers in Tehran.
As I went out to the plane that morning to get it ready to go, two limousines came from the city. They were T. V. Soong’s Chinese delegates. I flew them to Tehran that day.
En route, I stopped at Habbaniyah in Iraq for refueling, and while on the ground an Air Force B-25 arrived with an old friend of mine flying it, and with L. Col. Elliott Roosevelt, the President’s son. I introduced him and Roosevelt to the Chinese, and vice versa.
I don’t know whether any of you ever realized this, but years later the fact that Elliott Roosevelt had gone to the Tehran conference brought up one of the most amazing untold facts in our history. I can only imagine why more had not been written about it.
Because Elliott had met Stalin in Tehran with his father in 1943, in late 1946, Gardner Cowless, publisher of LOOK magazine asked him to go to Moscow to interview Stalin.
Roosevelt accepted this offer and did interview Stalin there. At the end of a long interview, he turned to the Generalissimo and asked one more question, “Why is it that my mother has never been permitted to visit Moscow even though she has made three very formal applications for the trip?”
Stalin glared at Elliott and said, “You don’t know why?”
Elliott replied, “No!”
Quickly, Stalin responded, “Don’t you know who killed your father?”
Stalin rising from his chair, continued, “Well, I’ll tell you why I have not invited her here. As soon as your father died, I asked my ambassador in Washington to go immediately to Georgia with a request to view the body.” Stalin believed that if Gromyko could see the body he would confirm that the cerebral hemorrhage that had caused his death had caused extensive discoloration and distortion.
Elliot responded that he knew nothing about that and then Stalin said, “Your mother refused to permit the lid of the coffin to be opened so that my ambassador could see the body.” Adding “I sent him there three times trying to impress upon your mother that it was very important for him to view the President’s body. She never accepted that. I have never forgiven her.”
This forced Elliott to ask this last question, “…but why?”
Stalin took a few steps around the office, and almost in a rage roared, “They poisoned your father, of course, just as they have tried repeatedly to poison me.”
“They, who are they,” Elliot asked
“The Churchill gang!” Stalin roared, “They poisoned your father, and they continue to try to poison me…the Churchill gang!”
I had heard, while in Tehran, that Roosevelt and Churchill had had a strenuous argument in front of Stalin and Chiang during the conference on the subject of decolonialization of South East Asia. I have read it in a government publication of the time. Then, this account of Elliott’s visit to Moscow in 1946 was written and signed by him and appeared in the February 9, 1986 issue of the nationwide Sunday Supplement magazine “PARADE.”
We all know that there are amazing stories that can not be found in the history books. That is what I am saying here. Most students have not been able to learn that Chiang Kai-shek was a member of this Four Power Conference in Tehran. But, I was there. I had flown the Chinese delegates there from Cairo, and I have read it in a Congressional Committee Report, “The U. S. Government and the Vietnam” Part 1-1945-1951″ by the U. S. Government Printing Office, 1984.
Both sources have been in the public domain for more than 10 years. Why haven’t we seen them, on campus, in the History books and in classes?
In 1953, in a toast before the New York Press Club, John Swinton, former Chief of Staff of the New York Times and the “Dean of his Profession” stated: (part extracted)
“If I allowed my honest opinions to appear in one issue of my paper, before twenty-four hours my occupation would be gone. The business of journalists is to destroy the truth; to pervert; to vilify; to fawn at the feet of mammon, and to sell this country and this race for their daily bread. We are the tools and vessels for rich men behind the scenes. We are the jumping jacks, they pull the strings and we dance. Our talents, our possibilities and our lives are all the property of other men. We are intellectual prostitutes.”
L. Fletcher Prouty
“Shortly after their departure, Winston Churchill became extremely ill. He was hurried TO EGYPT where he was so sick that his death was expected momentarily. But his life was saved by a protégé of his, Sir Arthur Fleming, the discoverer of penicillin.”
“Roosevelt also was extremely ill on his return. He was unable to walk or stand unassisted, and never recovered his strength.” Friends, the man who was elected as President for the 4th term was NOT ROOSEVELT! When he died, “Admiral McIntyre, FDR’s physician, is reported to have said that Roosevelt’s body was not embalmed; that in less than four hours after death, it had turned black, a reaction that occurs among other cases, in event of arsenic poisoning” (p. 285).
On page 286, it says, “A careful study of the few photographs of Roosevelt released in 1944 raised the question of whether they are really photographs of Roosevelt or of a stand-in. It was widely known that there were a number of stand-ins who resembled Roosevelt so closely that they appeared for him on occasions. If the suspicions raised by the photographs are well founded, the mystery deepens. What did happen to Roosevelt? Who was it that campaigned and was re-elected in 1944?”
Who indeed? Remember, that book was written in 1948. On page 287 it says evidence indicated that Roosevelt had killed himself with a “small silver pistol.” It says, “His burial without autopsy was a criminal act and a flagrant violation of the law. There is more in this situation than meets the eye.” Ah, so! He ends the chapter by saying, “The deception perpetrated on the public in regard to Roosevelt’s health is characteristic of that which prevailed in all matters during his Administration.
” fire ”
1933 In Edmond Paris’s book, printed by Ozark Publications, called The Vatican Against Europe, it gets into great detail of what they did. It calls it—the last 30 years of war is all attributable to the Jesuits, their massacres of the Serbs and Jews, etc. But Edmond Paris did not understand that the Jesuit General—and this is one of the most important points I want to make about Von Kolvenbach—the Jesuit General is in complete control of the international intelligence community: that’s the CIA, the FBI, the KGB, the Israeli Mossad, the German BND, the British SIS. The Jesuit General is in COMPLETE CONTROL of the entire intelligence apparatus—FBI, every bureaucratic agency in this country, all of it; he is in complete control of it. So, whenever he wants to find something out about an individual, they put in the Social Security number, and everything from all of the intelligence apparatus kicks-in and he and his provincials can review everything about that man. Credit cards, you name it, everything that’s attached to Rome’s social security number, which FDR put upon us in 1933 with the help of Spellman; at the time, I believe he was Archbishop, or maybe it was Cardinal Hayes—but Rome was behind FDR in putting him in office. The couple of things that he did was implement social insecurity, the income tax, and recognizing Joseph Stalin’s bloody Jesuit USSR government. So, with the giving of us the Social Security number, that is Rome’s number—that’s why I refuse to use it—and that’s why they want everybody using it for everything: driver’s license, tax return, credit card, everything you do, that number is you and that number is Rome’s number. The Black Pope
1937-1971 Hugo Lafayette Black, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Confirmed Mason. Nominated by Mason President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1938-1957 Stanley Forman Reed, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Confirmed Mason. Nominated by Mason President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1939-1962 Felix Frankfurter, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by Mason President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Note: Felix Franfurter was a well known friend of Joseph Kennedy, (John F. Kennedy’s father), and Charles Taze Russell, founder of the Watchtower and Bible Tract Society, known as the Jehovah’s Witnesses. A well known case for Felix was West Virginia State Board of Education vs. Barnette (1943), which the court declared unconstitutional a state requirement that school children, including Jehovah’s Witnesses, salute the U.S. flag. Felix Frankfurter, Justice of the Supreme Court said: “The real rulers in Washington are invisible and exercise power from behind the scenes.”
1939-1975 William Orville Douglas, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Confirmed Mason. Nominated by Mason President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1940-1949 Frank Murphy, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by Mason President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1941-1942 James Francis Byrnes, S.C.J. also Secretary of State 1945. Confirmed Mason. Nominated by Mason President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1941-1954 Robert Hoghwout Jackson, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Confirmed Mason. Nominated by Mason President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1941-1946 Harlin Fiske Stone, S.C.J. Associate Justice 1925-1941. Chief Justice 1941-1946. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1943-1949 Wiley Blount Rutledge, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Confirmed Mason. Nominated by Mason President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
See the Freemasons compass and square
A065. Engraving from I.C. H., Das Hermes Trimegists, Leipsig, 1782.
Is America Babylon
The Symbol of The Illuminati. You’ll never think the same way again.
Times Square New Year’s Eve Ball Drenched In Hyperdimensioal Symbolism
1933, May 23, Congressman, Louis T. McFadden, brought formal charges against the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Bank system, The Comptroller of the Currency and the Secretary of United States Treasury for numerous criminal acts, including but not limited to, CONSPIRACY, FRAUD, UNLAWFUL CONVERSION, AND TREASON. Congressman Brought Formal Charges Against the Federal Reserve
1933-1945 Joseph Kennedy ( John F. Kennedy’s father ) Was chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and an informal adviser to Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt. Confirmed Illuminati, and Skull and Bones. More Skull and Bones
1934-1951 Marriner S. Eccles, of an old elite family, and a Mormon (and an Illuminati) became Sec. of the Treasury in 1934, and was chairman of the Federal Reserve Board from 34-51.
1936 Alfred Landon, loosing candidate for Presidency (R) Governor of Kansas 1933-1937. Confirmed Mason.
Other parts of the world during this Presidency: England, Ireland, and India.1936-1952 George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George), king of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and emperor of India until Aug.15,1947. Confirmed Mason.
1939-1962 Felix Frankfurter, Associate Justice Supreme Court of the U.S. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by Mason President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Felix Franfurter was a well known friend of Joseph Kennedy, (John F. Kennedy’s father), and Charles Taze Russell, founder of the Watchtower and Bible Tract Society, known as the Jehovah’s Witnesses. A well known case for Felix was West Virginia State Board of Education vs. Barnette (1943), (Joseph Rutherford is in charge of the Witnesses at this time) which the court declared unconstitutional a state requirement that school children, including Jehovah’s Witnesses, salute the U.S. flag. (Fritz Springmeier, The Illuminati Bloodlines)
1940 Wendell L. Willkie, loosing candidate for Presidency (R) Unknown Mason status.
1940-1965 Winston Churchill. Confirmed Mason, and a Druid. (Albion Lodge of the Anc, Order of Druids at Blenheim, 15 Aug. 1908).England’s Secretary of war, held a seat on Parliament, and Prime Minister. Good friends included Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Kennedy ( John F. Kennedy’s father), Aristotle Onassis (whom Jackie Kennedy married in 1968), and the Reverend Billy Graham, who is also a Mason. (Fritz Springmeier, The Illuminati Bloodlines) See also Religion Index
1941 William Averell Harriman. Son of railroad magnate E .H. Harriman. Went on his first diplomatic mission in 1941 when President Franklin Roosevelt sent him to Britain to expedite U.S. lend-lease aid. Confirmed Skull and Bones. More Skull and Bones
1941-43 Edwin Bergstrom designs the Pentagon to bring under one roof the U.S. War Dept. offices in Arlington County, Virginia. When it was completed it was the largest office building in the world, covering 34 acres and offering 3,700,000 square feet of usable floor space. It consist of five concentric pentagons, or rings with 10 spokelike corridors connecting the whole. Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome, Italy shares the same design. You will be surprised to the meaning. Satanism/Freemasonry Linked to the Church
1944 Thomas E. Dewey, loosing running mate for the Presidency (R) Confirmed Mason.
1945 Near the end of World War II, on April 12, 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt met his “sudden death” of a cerebral hemorrhage at the 33rd Parallel at Warm Springs, Georgia. His last words were, “I have a terrific headache.” His medical chart is missing.
Emergency Banking Act
The Emergency Banking Act (the official title of which was the Emergency Banking Relief Act) was an act of the United States Congress spearheaded by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. It was passed on March 9, 1933. This act allows only Federal Reserve-approved banks to operate in the United States of America.
The provisions of the act were as follows:
Section 1. To affirm any orders or regulations the President or Secretary of the Treasury had given since March 4, 1933.
Section 2. To give the President the ability to declare a national emergency and have absolute control over the national finances and foreign exchange of the United States in the event of such an emergency.
Section 3. To authorize the Secretary of the Treasury to order any individual or organization in the United States to deliver any gold that they possess or have custody of to the Treasury in return for “any other form of coin or currency coined or issued under the laws of the United States”.
Section 4. To make it illegal for a bank to do business during a national emergency (per section 2) without the approval of the President.
To enable the Comptroller of the Currency (a post in the US Treasury) to take complete control of and operate any bank in the United States or its territories and to establish the terms and conditions under which bank is administered.
To allow banks to not allow debt to extinguish the use of stock.
Section 401. To allow Federal Reserve banks to convert any US debt obligation (such as a bond) into cash at par value and any check, draft, banker acceptance, etc, into cash at 90% of its apparent value.
Section 402. To allow the Federal Reserve banks to make unsecured loans to any member bank at an interest rate of 1% over the prevailing discount rate.
Section 403. To allow Federal Reserve banks to make loans to anyone for up to 90 days if the loan is secured by a general obligation of the United States (such as a Treasury bond, for example).
Section 501. Appropriation of $2,000,000 to the President for carrying out this legislation. Section 502. (a severability clause)
Proposal and Implementation
The Emergency Banking Act was introduced on March 9, 1933, to a joint session of Congress and was passed the same evening amid an atmosphere of chaos and uncertainty as over 100 new Democratic members of Congress swept into power determined to take radical steps to address banking failures and other economic malaise. The EBA was one of Mr. Roosevelt’s first projects in the 100 days. The sense of urgency was such that the act was passed with only a single copy available on the floor and most legislators voted on it without reading it.
According to William L. Silber “The Emergency Banking Act of 1933, passed by Congress on March 9, 1933, four days after FDR declared a nationwide bank holiday, combined with the Federal Reserve’s commitment to supply unlimited amounts of currency to reopened banks, created de facto 100 percent deposit insurance. Much to everyone’s relief, when the institutions reopened for business on March 13, 1933, depositors stood in line to return their stashed cash to neighborhood banks.
Within two weeks, Americans had redeposited more than half of the currency that they had squirreled away before the bank suspension. The stock market registered its approval as well. On March 15, 1933, the first day of stock trading after the extended closure of Wall Street, the New York Stock Exchange recorded the largest one-day percentage price increase ever with the Dow Jones Industrial Average gaining 8.26 points to close at 62.10; a gain of 15.34 percent. With the benefit of hindsight, the nationwide Bank Holiday and the Emergency Banking Act of March, 1933, ended the bank runs that had plagued the Great Depression.”
In March 1933 President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 6102 criminalizing the possession of monetary gold by any individual, partnership, association or corporation and Congress passed a similar resolution in June of 1933.
This act was a temporary response to a major problem. The 1933 Banking Act passed later that year presented elements of longer-term response, including formation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
Full Text of the Emergency Banking Act
Documents on the Banking Emergency of 1933
Social Security (United States)
In the United States, Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) federal program. The original Social Security Act (1935) and the current version of the Act, as amended,encompass several social welfare and social insurance programs.
Social Security is primarily funded through dedicated payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (FICA). Tax deposits are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund which comprise the Social Security Trust Fund. Upward redistribution of income is responsible for about 43% of the projected Social Security shortfall over the next 75 years.
According to economist Martin Feldstein, the combined spending for all social insurance programs in 2003 constituted 37% of government expenditure and 7% of the gross domestic product. Social Security is currently estimated to keep roughly 40 percent of all Americans age 65 or older out of poverty. The Social Security Administration is headquartered in Woodlawn, Maryland, just west of Baltimore.
Main article: History of Social Security in the United States
Social Security Cards
A limited form of the Social Security program began, during President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s first term, as a measure to implement “social insurance” during the Great Depression of the 1930s, when poverty rates among senior citizens exceeded 50 percent. The Act was an attempt to limit what were seen as dangers in the modern American life, including old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children.
Opponents, however, decried the proposal as socialism. In a Senate Finance Committee hearing, one Senator asked Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, “Isn’t this socialism?” She said that it was not, but he continued, “Isn’t this a teeny-weeny bit of socialism?”
The majority of women and minorities were excluded in the beginning from the benefits of unemployment insurance and old age pensions, as employment definitions reflected typical white male categories and patterns.
The provisions of Social Security have been changing since the 1930s, shifting in response to economic worries as well as concerns over changing gender roles and the position of minorities. Officials have responded more to the concerns of women than those of minority groups. Social Security gradually moved toward universal coverage. By 1950, debates moved away from which occupational groups should be included to how to provide more adequate coverage. Changes in Social Security have reflected a balance between promoting equality and efforts to provide adequate protection.
The larger and better known programs under the Social Security Act and amendments are:
Federal Old-Age (Retirement), Survivors, and Disability Insurance
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
Health Insurance for Aged and Disabled (Medicare)
Grants to States for Medical Assistance Programs (Medicaid)
State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
The largest component of OASDI is the payment of retirement benefits. Throughout a worker’s career, the Social Security Administration keeps track of his or her earnings. The amount of the monthly benefit to which the worker is entitled depends upon that earnings record and upon the age at which the retiree chooses to begin receiving benefits.
Joining and quitting
Obtaining a Social Security number for a child is voluntary. Further, there is no general legal requirement that individuals join the Social Security program (although, under normal circumstances, FICA taxes must be collected anyway).
The FICA taxes are imposed on all workers and self-employed persons. Employers are required to report wages for covered employment to Social Security for processing Forms W-2 and W-3. There are some specific wages which are not a part of the Social Security program (discussed below). Internal Revenue Code provisions section 3101 imposes payroll taxes on individuals and employer matching taxes. Section 3102 mandates that employers deduct these payroll taxes from workers’ wages before they are paid. Generally, the payroll tax is imposed on everyone in employment earning “wages” as defined in 3121 of the Internal Revenue Code. and also taxes net earnings from self-employment.
Social Security taxes are paid into the Social Security Trust Fund maintained by the U.S. Treasury (technically, the “Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund”, as established by 42 U.S.C. § 401(a)). Current year expenses are paid from current Social Security tax revenues. When revenues exceed expenditures, as they did between 1983 and 2009, the excess is invested in special series, non-marketable U.S. Government bonds, thus the Social Security Trust Fund indirectly finances the federal government’s general purpose deficit spending.
In 2007, the cumulative excess of Social Security taxes and interest received over benefits paid out stood at $2.2 trillion. The Trust Fund is regarded by some as an accounting construct which holds no economic significance. Others argue that it has specific legal significance because the Treasury securities it holds are backed by the “full faith and credit” of the U.S. government, which has an obligation to repay its debt.
The Social Security Administration’s authority to make benefit payments as granted by Congress extends only to its current revenues and existing Trust Fund balance, i.e., redemption of its holdings of Treasury securities. Therefore, Social Security’s ability to make full payments once annual benefits exceed revenues depends in part on the federal government’s ability to make good on the bonds that it has issued to the Social Security trust funds. As with any other federal obligation, the federal government’s ability to repay Social Security is based on its power to tax and borrow and the commitment of Congress to meet its obligations.
In 2009 the Office of the Chief Actuary of the Social Security Administration calculated an unfunded obligation of $15.1 trillion for the Social Security program. The unfunded obligation is the difference between the future cost of Social Security (based on several demographic assumptions such as mortality, work force participation, immigration, and age expectancy) and total assets in the Trust Fund given the expected contribution rate through the current scheduled payroll tax.
This unfunded obligation is expressed in present value dollars and is a part of the Fund’s long-range actuarial estimates, not necessarily a certainty of what will occur in the long run. An Actuarial Note to the calculation says that “The term obligation is used in lieu of the term liability, because liability generally indicates a contractual obligation (as in the case of private pensions and insurance) that cannot be altered by the plan sponsor without the agreement of the plan participants.” Upward redistribution of income is responsible for about 43% of the projected Social Security shortfall over the next 75 years.
Social Security number
A side effect of the Social Security program in the United States has been the near-universal adoption of the program’s identification number, the Social Security number, as the de facto U.S. national identification number. The social security number, or SSN, is issued pursuant to section 205(c)(2) of the Social Security Act, codified as 42 U.S.C. § 405(c)(2). The government originally stated that the SSN would not be a means of identification, but currently a multitude of U.S. entities use the Social Security number as a personal identifier. These include government agencies such as the Internal Revenue Service, the military as well as private agencies such as banks, colleges and universities, health insurance companies, and employers.
Although the Social Security Act itself does not require a person to have a Social Security Number (SSN) to live and work in the United States, the Internal Revenue Code does generally require the use of the social security number by individuals for federal tax purposes:
The social security account number issued to an individual for purposes of section 205(c)(2)(A) of the Social Security Act shall, except as shall otherwise be specified under regulations of the Secretary [of the Treasury or his delegate], be used as the identifying number for such individual for purposes of this title.
Importantly, most parents apply for Social Security numbers for their dependent children in order to include them on their income tax returns as a dependent. Everyone filing a tax return, as taxpayer or spouse, must have a Social Security Number or Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) since the IRS is unable to process returns or post payments for anyone without an SSN or TIN.
The Privacy Act of 1974 was in part intended to limit usage of the Social Security number as a means of identification. Paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of section 7 of the Privacy Act, an uncodified provision, states in part:
(1) It shall be unlawful for any Federal, State or local government agency to deny to any individual any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual’s refusal to disclose his social security account number.
However, the Social Security Act provides:
It is the policy of the United States that any State (or political subdivision thereof) may, in the administration of any tax, general public assistance, driver’s license, or motor vehicle registration law within its jurisdiction, utilize the social security account numbers issued by the Commissioner of Social Security for the purpose of establishing the identification of individuals affected by such law, and may require any individual who is or appears to be so affected to furnish to such State (or political subdivision thereof) or any agency thereof having administrative responsibility for the law involved, the social security account number (or numbers, if he has more than one such number) issued to him by the Commissioner of Social Security.
Further, paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of section 7 of the Privacy Act provides in part:
(2) the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply with respect to –
(A) any disclosure which is required by Federal statute, or
(B) the disclosure of a social security number to any Federal, State, or local agency maintaining a system of records in existence and operating before January 1, 1975, if such disclosure was required under statute or regulation adopted prior to such date to verify the identity of an individual.
The exceptions under section 7 of the Privacy Act include the Internal Revenue Code requirement that social security numbers be used as taxpayer identification numbers for individuals.
Claim that it discriminates against the poor and the middle class
Critics, such as libertarian Nobel Laureate economist Milton Friedman, say that Social Security redistributes wealth from the poor to the wealthy. Workers must pay 12.4 percent, including a 6.2 percent employer contribution, on their wages below the Social Security Wage Base ($110,100 in 2012), but no tax on income in excess of this amount.Therefore, high earners pay a lower percentage of their total income because of the income caps; because of this, payroll taxes are often viewed as being regressive. Furthermore, wealthier individuals generally have higher life expectancies and thus may expect to receive larger benefits for a longer period than poorer taxpayers. A single individual who dies before age 62, who is more likely to be poor, receives no retirement benefits despite his years of paying Social Security tax. On the other hand, an individual who lives to age 100, who is more likely to be wealthy, is guaranteed payments that are more than he paid into the system.
An NBER volume edited by Martin Feldstein and Jeffrey Liebman called The Distributional Aspects of Social Security points out that members of racial minorities with lower than average life expectancies and lower than average rates of marriage may also suffer from the program on average.
Supporters of Social Security say that despite its regressive tax formula, Social Security benefits are calculated using a progressive benefit formula that replaces a much higher percentage of low-income workers’ pre-retirement income than that of higher-income workers (although these low-income workers pay a higher percentage of their pre-retirement income).
They also point to numerous studies that show that, relative to high-income workers, Social Security disability and survivor benefits paid on behalf of low-income workers more than offset any retirement benefits that may be lost because of shorter life expectancy, but this offset requires an individual to be disabled. Other research asserts that survivor benefits, allegedly an offset, actually exacerbate the problem because survivor benefits are denied to single individuals, including widow(er)s married less than nine months (except in certain situations), divorced widow(er)s married less than 10 years, and co-habiting or same-sex couples, unless they are legally married in their state of residence. Unmarried individuals tend to be less wealthy and minorities.
Claim that politicians exempted themselves from the tax
Critics of Social Security have said that the politicians who created Social Security exempted themselves from having to pay the Social Security tax. Indeed, when the federal government created Social Security, all federal employees, including the President and members of Congress, were exempt from having to pay the Social Security tax, and they received no Social Security benefits.
This law was changed by the Social Security Amendments of 1983, which brought within the Social Security system all members of Congress, the President and the Vice President, federal judges, and certain executive-level political appointees, as well as all federal employees hired in any capacity on or after January 1, 1984. Many state and local government workers, however, are exempt from Social Security taxes because they contribute instead to alternative retirement systems set up by their employers.
Claim that the government lied about the maximum tax
George Mason University economics professor Walter E. Williams claimed that the federal government has broken its own promise regarding the maximum Social Security tax. Williams used data from the federal government to back up his claim.
According to a 1936 pamphlet on the Social Security website, the federal government promised the following maximum level of taxation for Social Security, “… beginning in 1949, twelve years from now, you and your employer will each pay 3 cents on each dollar you earn, up to $3,000 a year. That is the most you will ever pay.”
However, according to the Social Security website, by the year 2008, the tax rate was 6.2% each for the employer and employee, and the maximum income level that was subject to the tax was $102,000 raising the bar to $6,324 maximum contribution by both employee and employer (total $12,648).
In 2005, Dr. Williams wrote, “Had Congress lived up to those promises, where $3,000 was the maximum earnings subject to Social Security tax, controlling for inflation, today’s $50,000-a-year wage earner would pay about $700 in Social Security taxes, as opposed to the more than $3,000 that he pays today.”
According to the Social Security website, “The tax rate in the original 1935 law was 1% each on the employer and the employee, on the first $3,000 of earnings. This rate was increased on a regular schedule in four steps so that by 1949 the rate would be 3% each on the first $3,000. The figure was never $1,400, and the rate was never fixed for all time at 1%.”
Claim that it gives a low rate of return
Critics of Social Security claim that it gives a low rate of return, compared to what is obtained through private retirement accounts. For example, critics point out that under the Social Security laws as they existed at that time, several thousand employees of Galveston County, Texas were allowed to opt out of the Social Security program in the early 1980s, and have their money placed in a private retirement plan instead. While employees who earned $50,000 per year would have collected $1,302 per month in Social Security benefits, the private plan paid them $6,843 per month.
While employees who earned $20,000 per year would have collected $775 per month in Social Security benefits, the private plan paid them $2,740 per month, at interest rates prevailing in 1996. While some advocates of privatization of Social Security point to the Galveston pension plan as a model for Social Security reform, critics point to a GAO report to the House Ways and Means Committee, which indicates that, for low and middle income employees, particularly those with shorter work histories, the outcome may be less favorable.
Claim that it is a Ponzi scheme
See also: Criticism of Social Security as a pyramid or Ponzi scheme
Critics have drawn parallels between Social Security and Ponzi schemes, e.g.:
…the vast majority of the money you pay in Social Security taxes is not invested in anything. Instead, the money you pay into the system is used to pay benefits to those “early investors” who are retired today. When you retire, you will have to rely on the next generation of workers behind you to pay the taxes that will finance your benefits.
As with Ponzi’s scheme, this turns out to be a very good deal for those who got in early. The very first Social Security recipient, Ida Mae Fuller of Vermont, paid just $44 in Social Security taxes, but the long-lived Mrs. Fuller collected $20,993 in benefits. Such high returns were possible because there were many workers paying into the system and only a few retirees taking benefits out of it. In 1950, for instance, there were 16 workers supporting every retiree. Today, there are just over three. By around 2030, we will be down to just two.
As with Ponzi’s scheme, when the number of new contributors dries up, it will become impossible to continue to pay the promised benefits. Those early windfall returns are long gone. When today’s young workers retire, they will receive returns far below what private investments could provide.
One criticism of the analogy is that while Ponzi schemes and Social Security have similar structures (in particular, a sustainability problem when the number of new people paying in is declining), they have different transparencies. In the case of a Ponzi scheme, the fact that there is no return-generating mechanism other than contributions from new entrants is obscured whereas Social Security payouts have always been openly underwritten by incoming tax revenue and the interest on the Treasury bonds held by or for the Social Security system. The sudden loss of confidence resulting in a collapse of a conventional Ponzi scheme when the scheme’s true nature is revealed is unlikely to occur in the case of the Social Security system. Private sector Ponzi schemes are also vulnerable to collapse because they cannot compel new entrants, whereas participation in the Social Security program is a condition for joining the U.S. labor force. In connection with these and other issues, Robert E. Wright calls Social Security a “quasi” pyramid scheme in his book, Fubarnomics.
Main article: Social Security debate (United States)
Proposals to reform of the Social Security system have led to heated debate, centering around funding of the program. In particular, proposals to privatize funding have caused great controversy.
Contrast with private pensions
Although Social Security is sometimes compared to private pensions, the two systems are different in a number of respects. It has been argued that Social Security is an insurance plan as opposed to a retirement plan. Unlike a pension, for example, Social Security pays disability benefits. A private pension fund accumulates the money paid into it, eventually using those reserves to pay pensions to the workers who contributed to the fund; and a private system is not universal. Social Security cannot “prefund” by investing in marketable assets such as equities, because federal law prohibits it from investing in assets other than those backed by the U.S. government.
As a result, its investments to date have been limited to “special” non-negotiable securities issued by the U.S. Treasury, although some argue that debt issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association and other quasi-governmental organizations could meet legal standards. Social Security cannot by law invest in private equities, although some other countries (such as Canada) and some states permit their pension funds to invest in private equities. As a universal system, Social Security generally operates as a pipeline, through which current tax receipts from workers are used to pay current benefits to retirees, survivors, and the disabled. When there is an excess of taxes withheld over benefits paid, and by law this excess is invested in Treasury securities (not in private equities) as described above.
Two broad categories of private pension plans are “defined benefit pension plans” and “defined contribution pension plans.” Of these two, Social Security is more similar to a defined benefit pension plan. In a defined benefit pension plan, the benefits ultimately received are based on some sort of pre-determined formula (such as one based on years worked and highest salary earned).
Defined benefit pension plans generally do not include separate accounts for each participant. By contrast, in a defined contribution pension plan each participant has a specific account with funds put into that account (by the employer or the participant, or both), and the ultimate benefit is based on the amount in that account at the time of retirement. Some have proposed that the Social Security system be modified to provide for the option of individual accounts (in effect, to make the system, at least in part, more like a defined contribution pension plan). Specifically, on February 2, 2005, President George W. Bush made Social Security a prominent theme of his State of the Union Address. He described the Social Security system as “headed for bankruptcy”, and outlined, in general terms, a proposal based on partial privatization. Critics responded that privatization would require huge new government borrowing to fund benefit payments during the transition years.
Both “defined benefit” and “defined contribution” private pension plans are governed by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), which requires employers to provide minimum levels of funding to support “defined benefits” pensions. The purpose is to protect the workers from corporate mismanagement and outright bankruptcy, although in practice many private pension funds have fallen short in recent years. In terms of financial structure, the current Social Security system is analogous to an underfunded “defined benefit” pension (“underfunded” meaning not that it is in trouble, but that its “savings” are not enough to pay future benefits without collecting future tax revenues).
Contrast with insurance
Besides the argument over whether the returns on Social Security contributions should or can be compared to returns on private investment instruments, there is the question of whether the contributions are nonetheless analogous to pooled insurance premiums charged by for-profit commercial insurance companies to maintain and generate a return on a “risk pool of funds”. Like any insurance program, Social Security “spreads risk” as the program protects workers and covered family members against loss of income from the wage earner’s retirement, disability, or death. For example, a worker who becomes disabled at a young age could receive a large return relative to the amount they contributed in FICA before becoming disabled, since disability benefits can continue for life. As in private insurance plans, everyone in the particular insurance pool is insured against the same risks, but not everyone will benefit to the same extent.
The analogy to insurance, however, is limited by the fact that paying FICA taxes creates no legal right to benefits and by the extent to which Social Security is, in fact, funded by FICA taxes. During 2011 and 2012, for example, FICA tax revenue was insufficient to maintain Social Security’s solvency without transfers from general revenues. These transfers added to the general budget deficit like general program spending.
Court interpretation of the Act to provide benefits
The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit has indicated that the Social Security Act has a moral purpose and should be liberally interpreted in favor of claimants when deciding what counted as covered wages for purposes of meeting the quarters of coverage requirement to make a worker eligible for benefits. That court has also stated: “. . . [T]he regulations should be liberally applied in favor of beneficiaries” when deciding a case in favor of a felon who had his disability payments retroactively terminated upon incarceration. According to the court, that the Social Security Act “should be liberally construed in favor of those seeking its benefits can not be doubted.” “The hope behind this statute is to save men and women from the rigors of the poor house as well as from the haunting fear that such a lot awaits them when journey’s end is near.”
The constitutionality of Social Security is intricately linked to the evolving nature of Supreme Court jurisprudence on federal power (the 20th century saw a dramatic increase in allowed congressional action). When Social Security was first passed, there were significant questions over its constitutionality as the Court had found another pension scheme, the original Railroad Retirement Act, to violate the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment. Some, such as University of Chicago law professor Richard Epstein and Robert Nozick, have argued that Social Security should be unconstitutional.
In the 1937 U.S. Supreme Court case of Helvering v. Davis, the Court examined the constitutionality of Social Security when George Davis of the Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Boston sued in connection with the Social Security tax. The U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts first upheld the tax. The District Court judgment was reversed by the Circuit Court of Appeals. Commissioner Guy Helvering of the Bureau of Internal Revenue (now the Internal Revenue Service) took the case to the Supreme Court, and the Court upheld the validity of the tax.
During the 1930s President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was in the midst of promoting the passage of a large number of social welfare programs under the New Deal and the High Court struck down many of those programs (such as the Railroad Retirement Act and the National Recovery Act) as unconstitutional. Modified versions of the affected programs were afterwards approved by the Court, including Social Security.
When Helvering v. Davis was argued before the Court, the larger issue of constitutionality of the old-age insurance portion of Social Security was not decided. The case was limited to whether the payroll tax was a suitable use of Congress’s taxing power. Despite this, no serious challenges regarding the system’s constitutionality are now being litigated, and Congress’s spending power may be more coextensive, as shown in cases like South Dakota v. Dole during the Reagan Administration.
Fraud and abuse
Social security number theft
Because Social Security Numbers have become useful in identity theft and other forms of crime, various schemes have been perpetrated to acquire valid Social Security Numbers and related identity information.
In February 2006, the Social Security Administration received several reports of an email message being circulated addressed to “Dear Social Security Number And Card owner” and purporting to be from the Social Security Administration. The message informs the reader “that someone illegally is using your Social Security number and assuming your identity” and directs the reader to a website designed to look like Social Security’s Internet website.
“I am outraged that someone would target an unsuspecting public in this manner,” said Commissioner Jo Anne B. Barnhart. “I have asked the Inspector General to use all the resources at his command to find and prosecute whoever is perpetrating this fraud.”
Once directed to the phony website, the individual is reportedly asked to confirm his or her identity with “Social Security and bank information.” Specific information about the individual’s credit card number, expiration date and PIN is then requested. “Whether on our online website or by phone, Social Security will never ask you for your credit card information or your PIN,” Commissioner Jo Anne B. Barnhart reported.
Social Security Administration Inspector General O’Carroll recommended people always take precautions when giving out personal information. “You should never provide your Social Security number or other personal information over the Internet or by telephone unless you are extremely confident of the source to whom you are providing the information,” O’Carroll said.
THE TRUTH ABOUT SOCIAL SECURITY
1933 In Edmond Paris’s book, printed by Ozark Publications, called The Vatican Against Europe, it gets into great detail of what they did. It calls it—the last 30 years of war is all attributable to the Jesuits, their massacres of the Serbs and Jews, etc. But Edmond Paris did not understand that the Jesuit General—and this is one of the most important points I want to make about Von Kolvenbach—the Jesuit General is in complete control of the international intelligence community: that’s the CIA, the FBI, the KGB, the Israeli Mossad, the German BND, the British SIS.
The Jesuit General is in COMPLETE CONTROL of the entire intelligence apparatus—FBI, every bureaucratic agency in this country, all of it; he is in complete control of it. So, whenever he wants to find something out about an individual, they put in the Social Security number, and everything from all of the intelligence apparatus kicks-in and he and his provincials can review everything about that man.
Credit cards, you name it, everything that’s attached to Rome’s social security number, which FDR put upon us in 1933 with the help of Spellman; at the time, I believe he was Archbishop, or maybe it was Cardinal Hayes—but Rome was behind FDR in putting him in office. The couple of things that he did was implement social insecurity, the income tax, and recognizing Joseph Stalin’s bloody Jesuit USSR government.
So, with the giving of us the Social Security number, that is Rome’s number—that’s why I refuse to use it—and that’s why they want everybody using it for everything: driver’s license, tax return, credit card, everything you do, that number is you and that number is Rome’s number. The Black Pope.