Chapter 18 – The Americas

ColShips

How the Spanish Inquisition Stole the New World from England!!

On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail from Spain with 3 ships: the Niña, the Pinta and the Santa María. He used the maps and charts of a dead pilot named Alonso Sanchez and arrived on the island of Santo Domingo on Oct.12. Martin Alonso Pinzón, the captain of the Pinta was the first to land, followed by Vicente Yañez Pinzón, the captain of the Niña.

On Oct. 28, he proceeded to another ISLAND named Cuba. He left those ISLANDS on Jan. 2, and arrived back in Spain on March 15, 1493. He never saw or set foot on the mainland of the New World until his 3rd voyage, 6 years later on August 5, 1498.

Immediately after his discovery of some ISLANDS off the coast of the mainland, his sponsors Ferdinand and Isabella, petitioned the Pope to give them not only the ISLANDS which Columbus had discovered but the still undiscovered MAINLAND!!

By coincidence it just so happened that a Spanish Pope by the name of Rodrigo Borgia was the head of the church of Rome at that time. He drew a line from the North Pole to the South just west of Africa (Cape Verde Islands) and he gave everything WEST of that line to the Spanish. Due to complaints by the Portuguese, the line was later moved further west but Pope Alexander never approved of that change.

Pope Alexander VI gave the New World to Spain

Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia) used a FORGED document called the Donation of Constantine as his authority for giving the New World to Spain:

“Wherefore, in order that the supreme pontificate may not deteriorate, but may rather be adorned with glory and power even more than is the dignity of an earthly rule; behold, we give over and relinquish to the aforesaid our most blessed Pontiff, Sylvester, the universal Pope, as well our palace, as has been said, as also the city of Rome, and all the provinces, places and cities of Italy and the western regions”

This Donation was a blatant counterfeit from the Dark Ages. There never was a Pope Sylvester as Roman Emperor Constantine was the first Pope.

Pope Alexander VI took time out from his busy schedule of watching bullfights by day and having orgies at night to write a BULL giving the New World to Spain and warning every other nation to keep “hands off.”

“Furthermore, under penalty of excommunication late sententie to be incurred ipso facto, should anyone thus contravene, we strictly forbid all persons of whatsoever rank, even imperial and royal, or of whatsoever estate, degree, order, or condition, to dare, without your special permit or that of your aforesaid heirs and successors, to go for the purpose of trade or any other reason to the islands or mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole to the Antarctic pole…. Let no one, therefore, infringe, or with rash boldness contravene, this our recommendation, exhortation, requisition, gift, grant, assignment, constitution, deputation, decree, mandate, prohibition, and will.

Should anyone presume to attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul.
Given at Rome, at St. Peter’s, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord one thousand four hundred and ninety-three, the fourth of May, and the first year of our pontificate” (Papal Bull granting the New World to Spain, May 4, 1493).

Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503), the infamous Borgia, gave the New World to Spain. He was a MONSTER of iniquity even by the standards of his day.
“There is more than one Chamber of Horrors in the Museum of History, but none like that of the Borgia. The central figure is that of Rodrigo Borgia, who as Alexander VI sat on the papal throne for eleven years; around him are grouped his mistresses; a brood of bastard children; a retinue of henchmen and an endless procession of victims. It was the darkest period in the life of Christianity, just before the dawn of the Reformation. Rome had become a sink of unspeakable corruption where, in the words of Dante, “Christ was sold every day” (Bond, In the Pillory, The Tale of the Borgia Pope, p. 9).

The King and Queen of Spain had many spies in Bristol and London notifying them of the Cabot voyages of discovery!!

The real motivation for sending Columbus was the voyages of Discovery of John Cabot:

“The fleet he (John Cabot) prepared, which consisted of five was provisioned for a year. News has come that one of these, in which sailed another Friar Buil, has made land in Ireland in a great storm with the ship badly damaged. The Genoese kept on his way.

Having seen the course they are steering and the length of the voyage, I find that what they have discovered or are in search of is possessed by Your Highness because it is at the cape which fell to Your Highness by the convention with Portugal. It is hoped they will be back by September. I will let Your Highnesses know about it”(Pedro de Ayala letter from London).

Negotiations with the Pope and with the King of Portugal

The time was not occupied merely in shows and banquets. There was no difficulty now, about funds for a second expedition. Directions were given that it might be set forward as quickly as possible, and on an imposing scale. For it was feared at court that King John of Portugal, the successful rival of Spain, thus far, in maritime adventure, might anticipate further discovery.

The sovereigns at once sent an embassy to the pope, not simply to announce the discovery, but to obtain from him a decree confirming similar discoveries in the same direction. There was at least one precedent for such action. A former pope had granted to Portugal all the lands it might discover in Africa, south of Cape Bojador, and the Spanish crown had assented by treaty to this arrangement.

Ferdinand and Isabella could now refer to this precedent, in asking for a grant to them of their discoveries on the western side of the Atlantic. The pope now reigning was Alexander II. He had not long filled the papal chair. He was an ambitious and prudent sovereign–a native of Spain–and, although he would gladly have pleased the king of Portugal, he was quite unwilling to displease the Spanish sovereigns.

The Roman court received with respect the request made to them. The pope expressed his joy at the hopes thrown out for the conversion of the heathen, which the Spanish sovereigns had expressed, as Columbus had always done. And so prompt were the Spanish requests, and so ready the pope’s answer, that as early as May 3, 1493, a papal bull was issued to meet the wishes of Spain.

This bull determined for Spain and for Portugal, that all discoveries made west of a meridian line one hundred leagues west of the Azores should belong to Spain. All discoveries east of that line should belong to Portugal. No reference was made to other maritime powers, and it does not seem to have been supposed that other states had any rights in such matters. The line thus arranged for the two nations was changed by their own agreement, in 1494, for a north and south line three hundred and fifty leagues west of the Cape de Verde Islands. The difference between the two lines was not supposed to be important.

The decision thus made was long respected. Under a mistaken impression as to the longitude of the Philippine Islands in the East Indies, Spain has held those islands, under this line of division, ever since their discovery by Magellan. She considered herself entitled to all the islands and lands between the meridian thus drawn in the Atlantic and the similar meridian one hundred and eighty degrees away, on exactly the other side of the world.

Under the same line of division, Portugal held, for three centuries and more, Brazil, which projects so far eastward into the Atlantic as to cross this line of division.

http://books.caribseek.com/Caribbean/The_Life_of_Christopher_Columbus/negotiations-with-the-pope-and-with-the-king-of-portugal.shtml

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/atlantean_conspiracy/atlantean_conspiracy42.htm

The Columbus Myth Exposed At Last!!

Italian Reports on America, 1493-1522: Letters, Dispatches, and Papal Bulls & Las Casas on Columbus: The Third Voyage.
Christopher Columbus and the New World
Second voyage

Columbus_second_voyage

Columbus left the port of Cadiz on 24 September 1493, with a fleet of 17 ships carrying 1,200 men and the supplies to establish permanent colonies in the New World. The passengers included priests, farmers, and soldiers, who would be the new colonists. This reflected the new policy of creating not just “colonies of exploitation”, but also “colonies of settlement” from which to launch missions dedicated to converting the natives to Christianity.[51] Modern studies suggest that, as reported by the Washington Post, “crew members may have included free black Africans who arrived in the New World about a decade before the slave trade began.”

As in the first voyage, the fleet stopped at the Canary Islands, from which it departed on 13 October, following a more southerly course than on the previous expedition. On 3 November, Columbus sighted a rugged island that he named Dominica (Latin for Sunday); later that day, he landed at Marie-Galante, which he named Santa María la Galante. After sailing past Les Saintes (Los Santos, “The Saints”), he arrived at the island of Guadeloupe, which he named Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura, after the image of the Virgin Mary venerated at the Spanish monastery of Villuercas, in Guadalupe, Cáceres, Spain. He explored that island from 4 to 10 November.

Michele da Cuneo, Columbus’s childhood friend from Savona, sailed with Columbus during the second voyage and wrote: “In my opinion, since Genoa was Genoa, there was never born a man so well equipped and expert in the art of navigation as the said lord Admiral.”Columbus named the small island of “Saona … to honor Michele da Cuneo, his friend from Savona.” The same childhood friend reported in a letter that Columbus had provided one of the captured indigenous women to him. He wrote, “While I was in the boat, I captured a very beautiful Carib woman, whom the said Lord Admiral gave to me. When I had taken her to my cabin she was naked – as was their custom.

I was filled with a desire to take my pleasure with her and attempted to satisfy my desire. She was unwilling, and so treated me with her nails that I wished I had never begun. But – to cut a long story short – I then took a piece of rope and whipped her soundly, and she let forth such incredible screams that you would not have believed your ears. Eventually we came to such terms, I assure you, that you would have thought that she had been brought up in a school for whores.” This letter has been interpreted by some as providing evidence that Columbus knowingly aided the rape of captured indigenous people.

Pedro de las Casas, father of the priest Bartolomé de las Casas, also accompanied Columbus on this voyage.
Second voyage

The exact course of Columbus’s voyage through the Lesser Antilles is debated, but it seems likely that he turned north, sighting and naming several islands, including:

Montserrat (for Santa María de Montserrate, after the Blessed Virgin of the Monastery of Montserrat, which is located on the Mountain of Montserrat, in Catalonia, Spain),
Antigua (after a church in Seville, Spain, called Santa María la Antigua, meaning “Old St. Mary’s”),
Redonda (Santa María la Redonda, Spanish for “St. Mary the Round”, owing to the island’s shape),
Nevis (derived from the Spanish Nuestra Señora de las Nieves, “Our Lady of the Snows”, because Columbus thought the clouds over Nevis Peak made the island resemble a snow-capped mountain),
Saint Kitts (for St. Christopher, patron of sailors and travelers),
Sint Eustatius (for the early Roman martyr, St. Eustachius),
Saba (after the Biblical Queen of Sheba),
Saint Martin (San Martín), and
Saint Croix (from the Spanish Santa Cruz, meaning “Holy Cross”).

Columbus also sighted the chain of the Virgin Islands, which he named Islas de Santa Úrsula y las Once Mil Vírgenes, “Islands of Saint Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins” (shortened, both on maps of the time and in common parlance, to Islas Vírgenes). He also named the islands of Virgin Gorda (“Fat Virgin”), Tortola, and Peter Island (San Pedro).

He continued to the Greater Antilles, and landed in Puerto Rico, which he named San Juan Bautista in honor of Saint John the Baptist (a name that was later retained only for the capital city of San Juan). One of the first skirmishes between native Americans and Europeans since the time of the Vikings occurred when Columbus’s men rescued two boys who had just been castrated by their captors.

On 22 November, Columbus returned to Hispaniola, where he intended to visit the fort of La Navidad, built during his first voyage and located on the northern coast of Haiti. Columbus found the fort in ruins, destroyed by the native Taino people. Among the ruins were the corpses of 11 of the 39 Spaniards who had stayed behind as the first colonists in the New World.

In retaliation for the attack on La Navidad, Columbus demanded that each Taino over 14 years of age deliver a hawk’s bell full of gold powder every three months or, when this was lacking, twenty-five pounds of spun cotton. If this tribute was not delivered, the Taínos had their hands cut off and were left to bleed to death. Columbus then sailed more than 100 kilometers eastwards along the northern coast of Hispaniola, establishing a new settlement, which he called La Isabela, in the present-day Dominican Republic. However, La Isabela proved to be poorly located and the settlement was short-lived.

Columbus left Hispaniola on 24 April 1494, arriving at Cuba (which he named Juana) on 30 April. He explored the southern coast of Cuba, which he believed to be part of a peninsula attached to mainland Asia, as well as several nearby islands, including the Isle of Pines (which he named La Evangelista, “The Evangelist”). He reached Jamaica on 5 May.[citation needed] He retraced his route to Hispaniola, arriving on 20 August, before he finally returned to Spain.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus

Italian Reports on America, 1493-1522: Letters, Dispatches, and Papal Bulls & Las Casas on Columbus: The Third Voyage. .
Volume 10, Italian Reports on America, 1493-1522, consists of another collection of auxiliary materials chosen from those originally published in 1892 by Guglielmo Berchet in the Raccolta Colombiana, part 3, volume 1 under the title Carteggi diplomatici. These materials fall into two groups; the diplomatic reports of the ambassadors of various Italian polities to their rulers forwarding news of the recent Spanish and Portuguese voyages, and papal bulls and other Vatican documents regarding these voyages. A few of the ambassadorial reports, such as Giovanni Matteo Cretico’s description of the Portuguese expedition to India of 1500-01, contain interesting details, but for the most part they are brief, general, and allusive in content. The papal bulls and letters are more substantial. They include the well-known Alexandrine Bulls of 1493 and show a sequence of popes seeking ways to establish and exercise their political and spiritual authority over newly discovered territories and their inhabitants. But, like th e ambassadorial reports, they require a good deal of contextualizing in order to extract the full range of their meanings and assess their significance.

Geoffrey Symcox’s introduction addresses this issue of context in a number of ways. His main argument is that these reports will be of interest to those studying the early history of diplomacy in Italy. In setting this historical stage, he notes that the republic of Venice and the papacy had developed the most sophisticated systems of ambassadors by the end of the fifteenth century. However, the reports of the Spanish and Portuguese discoveries that circulated from 1493-1522 were probably of peripheral interest and did not significantly alter or reorient the relations of either Venice or the papacy with their respective allies and enemies. The Venetians were preoccupied with the Turkish incursions and with maintaining their commercial hegemony in the eastern Mediterranean and their political hegemony on the Italian peninsula. The popes, especially the papa terribile, Julius II, were focused on preserving the Patrimonium Sancti Petri in the face of the invasions of forces loyal to Charles VIII which had comme nced in 1494.

But the popes (or their curiae) also did seem to recognize the significance of the discoveries. In the three bulls issued in early May of 1493 (docs. 5-7), Alexander VI exercised the plenitudo potestatis given to him in the Donation of Constantine to distribute the newfound lands between Spain and Portugal, and he invoked his spiritual authority as the vicarius Christi to mandate the evangelization of their inhabitants. In this instance, the discovery of the Americas may be linked to evolution of the ideology (and bureaucracy) of the “papal prince” in the Renaissance–a phenomenon studied by Paolo Prodi and others. However, for the most part the reports collected in volume 10 confirm the well-known thesis set forth some time ago by J.H. Elliott in his The Old World and The New 1492-1 650 (first published in 1970) that the initial impact of the discoveries in Europe was at best, “uncertain.” This also is the conclusion reached by Symcox.

Columbus_third_voyage

Columbus’ third voyage, the most complicated and fascinating of the four he made, began auspiciously. In the summer of 1498, he and his crew were the first Europeans to reach the mainland of South America. His observation of powerful currents of fresh water flowing into the ocean in the Gulf of Paria led Columbus to think that they might be the four rivers mentioned in Genesis 2:10-14 and that he might therefore be in the environs of the Terrestrial Paradise. But when he then sailed to the island of Hispaniola (which he governed), he went from heaven to hell, as it were. Upon his arrival, he was confronted with open rebellion from the European settlers as well as resistance from the indigenous peoples. The situation deteriorated and ended with Columbus being sent back to Spain in chains by Ferdinand and Isabella’s comendador, Francisco de Bobadilla, in 1500.

The principal source for this voyage is a section (chaps. 130-82) of Bartolome de las Casas’ Historia de Las Indias. It in turn is based on a various sources which are now lost, including Columbus’ diary of the voyage and letters pertaining to it. Volume eleven of the Repertorium Columbianum offers a new edition of these chapters, based on an autograph in the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid. This edition, as the textual editor Jesus Carrillo notes on page 18, includes the changes that Las Casas made to the manuscript and preserves various inconsistencies in it and in doing this intends to complement earlier, more “homogenized” editions. This is a good decision. There is a growing interest in Las Casas himself and those who study him know that he habitually emended his work in an ongoing effort to integrate and consolidate the different sources to which he had access; it is very useful to have an edition of the Historia de Las Indias that gives access to this detail.

Since Las Casas was often incorporating the words of Columbus himself into his narrative, these chapters of Historia de las Indias beg the crucial question of the relationship of the author to his subject. On page 5 of his introduction Symcox hits the nail on the head when he observes that the text is “a kind of dialogue” between Las Casas and Columbus: “He [Las Casas] constantly quotes the admiral’s letters, often verbatim, and then glosses them with his own observations. The text thus becomes a running commentary, laudatory or critical, on Columbus’ own words; Las Casas treats him as his interlocutor in a conversation that runs through the text” . Those who study this judicious edition and translation will see Las Casas searching, sometimes struggling, to portray accurately and to understand a man whom he considers to be both divinely guided and morally corrupt.

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Italian+Reports+on+America%2c+1493-1522%3a+Letters%2c+Dispatches%2c+and+Papal…-a0102659408

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Italian+Reports+on+America%2c+1493-1522%3a+Letters%2c+Dispatches%2c+and+Papal…-a0102659408

CHAPTER 18         PART 1

What Is The Real Columbus Story?

The discovery of the North and South American continents by Europeans occurred no more than 600 years ago but the record of just exactly what happened, and who did what is deeply shrouded in faded national and international propaganda.

A couple of Italians seem to have helped in creating the maze.

The continents are named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci who supposedly made numerous trips to the Americas from 1497 to 1504. The story is that Vespucci explored from North American south to the Falkland Islands and helped European map-makers define the newly discovered continents. Apparently the map makers were not aware of the exploits of Columbus and named the new land the Americas, after Vespucci.

School books say Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492, five years before Vespucci. But this may not be true, according Ruggero Marino, Italian historian.

Marino says the late Alessandro Bausani, professor of Islamic studies at University of Venice, discovered evidence in an early 16th Century Ottoman map that Columbus went to America on a secret mission for the Pope in 1485.

He claims the Columbus story as told in contemporary textbooks is filled with misinformation generated by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.

The map, a somewhat controversial document known as Piri Reis after an admiral of the Ottoman fleet who supposedly drew it in 1513, is allegedly based on an original chart used by Columbus. It contains an annotation that states: “these shores were discovered in the year 890 of the Arab era by an infidel from Genoa named Columbus.” In the Arab calendar, the year 890 is 1485.

While the authenticity of the Piri Reis map remains in question, Marino says a Latin inscription in St. Peter’s Basilica on the tomb of the pope who reportedly financed the Columbus trip, Innocent VIII, gives supporting evidence. It says that during the pope’s pontificate “the glory of the discovery of the New World” occurred. Innocent died July 25, 1492, before the official story says Columbus set sail.

How did this story get lost?

According to Marino, Innocent VIII, an Italian, dispatched Columbus on his voyage hoping he would find gold to help finance the Crusades. But the pope’s death in 1492 set the stage for a big change in the Vatican. The succeeding pope, Alexander VI, a Spaniard, covered up the story and allowed the Spanish throne to take the credit.

Marino is expected to publish a book on his findings.

Of course the controversy over Columbus doesn’t stop with the Marino story. The unnamed writer of a paper published on the Pace University website gives a good outline of the rest of the story.

“Columbus didn’t discover anything. There is clear evidence that people traveled to the Western Hemisphere as far back as 70,000 BC. and from Europe and Africa to America beginning in 500 BC” the paper reads.  The writer added that there was no regular contact with this side of the Atlantic, but it was not a New World either.

“Columbus . . . discovered nothing. Some historians suggest that the modern-day Bahamas (where Columbus was thought to have landed) were inhabited by a couple of million Indians and Hispano (the island Columbus spent most of his time had as many as 6 million residents). The Americas had thriving populations when Columbus was said to have discovered the New World,” the paper says.

Columbus was reportedly sent to the New World to find gold, but he found slaves instead.

Columbus wrote in his log that the Arawak people on the islands “are well-built, with good bodies and handsome features . . . they will make fine servants. With 50 men we could subjugate them.”

Not only did the crew “subjugate” the natives, they enslaved, raped, and plundered their world. The women were forced to become sex slaves. Executions were common for any natives that disobeyed.

Eventually the people rebelled, but they were not skilled in warfare and were no match for the muskets, armor and weaponry aboard the Spanish ships. Killings and mass suicides occurred. It was literal genocide. By 1508 there were only 60,000 native Arawaks left on Hispano and 125,000 on Haiti. There had been a death rate of more than 95 percent.

“But our history books record none of this,” the article says. “We have a National Holiday for a discoverer, and adventurer, and a hero who was, in reality, a mass-murderer, a rapist, and a greedy miser who was out to become rich.”

http://perdurabo10.tripod.com/id465.html

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